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Passive LCD Technology

For passive LC displays a variety of technologies are available. They differ in viewing angle, colour, maximum multiplex rate and temperature range.

The lowest-priced technology is TN which is used for segment LCDs and alphanumeric modules. This technology suffers from a very constricted viewing angle and a maximum multiplex rate of 1:8.

Used mainly for alphanumeric modules and graphics modules, the STN technology features higher multiplex rates (>1:8) than TN and higher contrast ratio as well as a wider viewing angle.

LCDs can be produced in positive and negative mode. In positive mode the segment driven is darker than the background. LCDs use ambient light and/or a backlight. In negative mode the driven segment is brighter than the background. It is used especially if a high contrast with backlight is required.

The following table shows the colours of the segments or dots and the background colour of the LCD for possible modes:

positive negative
TNblack / grey transparent / black
STN blue / yellow-green transparent / blue
STN blue / grey blue / transparent
FSTN black / white white / black

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